PE is the abbreviation for Peru, the 19th largest country in the world. Officially the Republic of Peru, Peru is a country located in South America, bordering 5 countries – Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. Lima is the capital city of Peru.?Major cities include Lima (population: 7,736,991), Arequipa (population: 841,119), Callao (population: 813,253), Trujillo (population: 747,439), Chiclayo (population: 577,364), Iquitos (population: 437,609), Huancayo (population: 376,646), Piura (population: 325,455), Chimbote (population: 316,955), and Cusco (population: 312,129).
- Area:?1,285,216 km2
- Currency:?Sol (PEN)
- Time zone:?UTC?5
- Calling code:?51
- ISO 2-Letter Abbreviation:?PE
- UN 3-Letter Abbreviation:?PER
- Internet TLD: .pe
- State Government Website:?http://peru.gob.pe
List of Peru?Acronyms
The most commonly used abbreviations about Peru?are PE which stands for Peru?and PEN which means Sol (Peru?currency). In the following table, you can see all acronyms related to Peru, including abbreviations for airport, city, school, port, government, and etc.
Andean mountains divide Peru into three different regions. The dry coastal areas on the western side of the mountain range consist of a narrow plain with little rainfall and few variations between seasons. The highlands are humid with regular rainfall and cooler weather than in the rest of the country. On the eastern side of the Andes the climate is tropical with high temperatures and much rainfall during the rainy season.
In recent decades, Peru’s climate has been affected anomaly a lot by El Ni?o. The weather phenomenon causes the warm ocean currents from the Pacific to change direction, and runs along the equator to the coast of South America. The water pushes back the cold Humboldt stream outside Peru, creating drought and problems for the fishing industry. The country is rich in resources, and the rapid industrial development in the post-war period has made air and water pollution significant environmental challenges. Another problem is damage to the landscape and environmentally harmful emissions associated with mining. Cutting down the rainforest is a continuing problem.
The oldest traces of settlement in Peru are at least 12,000 years old. In the 12th century, the Incarica grew up in the area around the city of Cuzco, located in the southern part of present-day Peru. The kingdom grew and in the 1400s began the conquests which led to the Incarceration covering one third of South America. In 1532, the Spanish conquest of the Inca began. In the centuries that followed, mines and plantations were built where the natives worked as slaves. For the indigenous people, the Spanish colonial empire was a disaster. The combination of war, new diseases and forced labor resulted in the deaths of many.
The Peruvian War of Independence against the colonial rule led the country, like the last in South America, to become independent in 1821. The last Spanish forces were fought in 1824. The new state was characterized by conflicts between various rebel groups and wars against neighboring Ecuador and Chile. Throughout the 1900s, power shifted between military dictatorships and democratically elected leaders. In 1980, the last military regime went down. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by growing drug trafficking, economic crises and social discontent. Left-wing guerrilla groups emerged, and in a brutal conflict with the army, more than 69,000 people were killed.
Society and politics
Peru is a republic where the president is head of state, military and government. The president is elected for a five-year term, but cannot be elected twice in a row. Congress is the legislative assembly.
Since the turn of the millennium, the policy has been characterized by corruption scandals and major demonstrations. The indigenous population constitutes a significant proportion of those who protest against the use of natural resources and against industries that destroy the environment. Other important political issues are about growing crime and drug trafficking. The police and security forces are also regularly charged with arbitrary imprisonment, torture and other abuses. There are still major economic differences between the different parts of the country and between social classes. The Spanish speakers and descendants of Europeans make up the elite, while the black minority is the most discriminated against. The indigenous population, and to some extent those of Asian origin, also have lower status in society.
Economics and Commerce
There have been fluctuations in the country’s economy in the post-war period. After a major growth in the mineral extraction and fishing industry in the 1960s, an economic crisis arose in the 1980s. The market prices of the country’s export goods fell dramatically. After extensive economic reforms in the early 1990s, high inflation went down. Between 2009 and 2013, the country experienced significant economic growth as a result of mining and export of raw materials. Due to falling prices for these resources in the global market, there was less economic growth between 2014 and 2017. A large part of the population lives in poverty, especially in rural areas in urban slums.
The major export goods are minerals such as silver, copper, zinc, oil and gold and other commodities such as fishmeal, cotton, sugar and coffee. In addition, the tourism industry is important because of the rich cultural heritage; Machu Pichu and the magnificent nature of the Andes and the Amazon.
Although Peru has long had a strong economy, they have problems with a large black economy. This is especially related to drugs, and the country is the world’s largest producer of cocaine.
Peru pursues a free trade-friendly economic policy. The main trading partner is China, followed by the EU and the US.
The UN Association is offering a role-playing game for the 2019-20 school year in which students will try to resolve a conflict in the Security Council (Iran and the nuclear issue). Peru is a member of the Security Council, and the sections that follow are information related to this game.
Relations with other countries in the Security Council
Under former President Fujimori, Peru had a strained relationship with both Europe and many countries in South America. Throughout the 2000s, these conditions have improved significantly.
Peru, like many other countries in the Security Council, is concerned that the nuclear deal with Iran will be destroyed as a result of the US withdrawal. Peru is also afraid of the consequences of a possible armed conflict between the United States and Iran, and that the conflict could affect shipping and oil transport through the Persian Gulf.
Peru has signed the agreement on a nuclear-free zone in Latin America, and believes the establishment of such a zone in the Middle East can be an important contribution to peace in this region as well. The country believes that a conference should be held as soon as possible to create such a zone in the Middle East.
Peru is also a strong supporter of the Non-Proliferation Agreement, and believes it is now time for the nuclear weapons states to also implement disarmament in line with the obligations of this agreement. To accelerate the work for a nuclear-free world, Peru has also signed the UN Prohibition Treaty on Nuclear Weapons from 2017. Peru hopes that the nuclear weapons states will join this agreement as soon as possible.
As part of its efforts to bring about more nuclear disarmament, Peru hopes that negotiations will begin as soon as possible on an agreement on a ban on the production of fissile material for weapons purposes. Such an agreement would make it prohibited to produce high-enriched uranium and plutonium for weapons purposes – the most common starting point for making a nuclear bomb. In 2015, it was estimated that there was enough weapons uranium in the world to produce 76,000 nuclear bombs. The same estimate concluded that almost all the necessary materials are already in possession of the countries that have nuclear weapons. In Peru’s view, a ban on the production of fissile material for weapons purposes could also contribute to peace in the Middle East.