JO is the abbreviation for Jordan, the 110th largest country in the world. Officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Jordan is a country located in Middle East, bordering 4 countries – Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Amman is the capital city of Jordan.?Top 10 biggest?cities?are Amman (population: 1,275,846), Zarqa (population: 792,654), Irbid (population: 307,469), Russeifa (population: 268,226), Wadi Al Seer (population: 181,201), Adjlun (population: 125,546), Aqaba (population: 95,037), Rukban (population: 85,011), Madaba (population: 82,324), and Salt (population: 80,178).
- Area:?89,342 km2
- Currency:?Jordanian dinar (JOD)
- Time zone:?UTC+2
- Calling code:?962
- ISO 2-Letter Abbreviation:?JO
- UN 3-Letter Abbreviation:?JOR
- Internet TLD: .jo
- State Government Website:
List of Jordan?Acronyms
The most commonly used abbreviations about Jordan?are JO which stands for Jordan?and JOD which means Jordanian dinar (Jordan?currency). In the following table, you can see all acronyms related to Jordan, including abbreviations for airport, city, school, port, government, and etc.
Jordan has a two-mile coastal strip to the Gulf of Aqaba, otherwise the country is surrounded by other countries. Large parts of the country consist of a dry high plateau of 700 to 1000 meters. To the west, the landscape is characterized by a deep valley, where the Jordan River flows from the north to the south. The river flows into the Dead Sea, which is 400 meters below sea level, and is the lowest point of the earth’s surface. Along the valley to the west, the soil is fertile and all the major cities are in this region. In the north and east there are desert landscapes.
Lack of fresh water is Jordan’s biggest environmental problem. The country loses the Jordan River to maintain agriculture, but because this river is also important to neighboring countries, this has led to political conflict. In order to avoid the drainage of the river that caused the Dead Sea to dry out, Jordan and Israel agreed to build a Red Sea water pipeline in 2002. Other environmental challenges include deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion and desertification.
Today’s Jordan has been inhabited for 8,000 years. The land area has been subject to several great kingdoms and empires. Assyria, Babylon and Persia ruled over the area until around 300 BCE. when the Arab nomadic Nabateans established the city of Petra as its capital. This land was occupied by the Roman Empire in the year 106 AD. After over 500 years of Roman rule, the area became subject to Arab control in 633, before the Ottoman Empire took power in 1516. Jordan remained part of the great Turkish empire to the United Kingdom and France divided the Middle East between 1918, when the Ottoman Empire collapsed during the First World War. Britain retained control of Jordan until 1946, when it became an independent kingdom.
Since independence, the country has been characterized by political unrest, dictatorship and conflict. At the founding of the State of Israel in 1948, Jordan, along with Egypt, Syria and Iraq, went to war, occupying the West Bank and East Jerusalem. The areas were recaptured by Israel in 1967, and Jordan thus lost rich agricultural lands and several tourist attractions. Until a peace treaty was signed in 1994, the situation was tense between Jordan and Israel.
Society and politics
Jordan is a constitutional kingdom. The Jordanian Hashemite royal family is considered to be descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, which gives legitimacy to the people. The king is the commander-in-chief and commander-in-chief of the army. He also has the executive power, and has the right to declare war, make peace, announce or cancel elections, dissolve parliament and elect the country’s prime minister.
Jordan has a stable, well-educated and developed society. The country has a state health system, but the quality and access is better in the cities than in the countryside. Women are under-represented in the labor market and in politics, but compared to their neighboring countries, women have a stronger social position. Homosexuality is not criminalized by law, but is socially taboo and looked down upon.
As Jordan has been stable over time, millions of refugees from Palestine, Syria and Iraq have sought refuge there. This has put a great deal of pressure on the country’s public sector, state control and resources. Despite the country’s active role in fighting the Islamic State (IS), religious extremism has not gained a foothold in Jordan.
Economics and Commerce
Jordan has few income generating natural resources, and a small agricultural sector. However, the country has achieved greater prosperity than many other countries in the region. This is mainly due to foreign aid, income from Jordanians working abroad, and phosphate exports. In addition, Jordan benefits from being a hub for trade between Europe and the Middle East, and having a well-educated workforce. Building and construction, as well as freight transport, are important industries, and an investment is being made in building an IT industry. Jordan will also develop tourism, which is an important source of revenue for the country. Most tourists come from other Muslim countries, including many traveling through Jordan on their pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jordan is struggling today with big differences between poor and rich. In cities, living standards are generally somewhat better than in rural areas. The country has a high unemployment rate, among young people it is over 30 per cent. Around 14 per cent of the population lives below the national poverty line.